Obstetrics and Gynecology Services at Getwell Medical Center designated Center of Excellence in Women’s Health. We offer a range of obstetrical and gynecological services for women of all ages. Obstetrical care includes management of both routine and high-risk pregnancies, prenatal diagnosis and treatment. Gynecological services include care for all disorders of the female reproductive system.
- Cervical Dysplasia
- Defecatory Disorders
- Gynecological Cancers
- Menstrual Disorders
- Ovarian Cysts
- Pelvic Floor Disorders
- Pelvic Organ Prolapse
- Perineal Descent
- Rectal Prolapse
- Urinary Incontinence
|Cervical Dysplasia is caused by a sexually transmitted infection with a common virus, the Human Papillomavirus (HPV). Cervical Dysplasia can lead to cervical cancer; the third leading cause of cancer death in women. In the US cervical cancer remains the sixth most commonly diagnosed cancer.|
Normal Bowel Function
The bowel serves three important functions related to nutrition:
- Separation of the non-useful portions of food from the nutritious components.
- Extraction of the valuable nutrients from food.
- Timely evacuation of the unused portion including the ability to store until a convenient time for evacuation occurs
Process of Elimination
Most of the absorption of the useful nutrients occurs in the small bowel. Therefore, most of the material that enters the colon is waste. The material entering the colon is normally liquid, and one of the functions of the colon is to absorb some of the water to make it more solid. The other function is to move the waste to the rectum where it is stored until defecation. This occurs through a series of coordinated contractions of the colon wall muscle that resemble a wave. This wave like contraction is referred to as peristalsis.
Once the waste reaches the rectum, it is held there until convenient evacuation is possible. Keeping the waste in the rectum is the function of the anus. The anus has two circular muscles that squeeze the anus closed when contracted. The internal muscle is closed all the time while the external or outer muscle contracts when stool enters the rectum. The pelvic floor muscles also help to keep the stool in the rectum by creating enough pressure in the anus to keep stool in the rectum.
Abnormal Bowel Function
Abnormal bowel function includes:
- Fecal Incontinence
- Irritable Bowel Syndrome
|Endometriosis is a benign disorder characterized by the presence of endometrial tissue (the tissue that lines the uterus) outside the uterine cavity where it becomes attached to reproductive or abdominal organs. The patches of endometrial tissue swell with blood during menstruation as if they were still in the uterus.
Because this blood is trapped within the tissue and cannot be shed through the vagina, blood blisters form, and they may develop further into cysts, scar tissue, or adhesions (fibrous bands that link together other tissues that are normally separated). Cysts may range from the size of a pinhead to the size of a grapefruit; cysts, scars, and adhesions may all lead to infertility.
Endometriosis is a common disorder, most prevalent between the ages of 25 and 40. Symptoms vary and are not strictly correlated with the severity of the disease; they may worsen with time, but tend to diminish during pregnancy and cease with menopause. Many women have no symptoms at all. Treatment depends on the severity of symptoms, the age of the woman, and whether she wishes to have children.
Causes of endometriosis
The cause of endometriosis is unknown. Hereditary factors may be involved. Hormonal changes or recent pelvic surgery may promote endometriosis
Symptoms of endometriosis include:
- Pain in the vagina, lower abdomen, and lower back. Pain often begins just prior to monthly periods, continues during menses, and worsens just after the cessation of blood flow.
- Abnormal or heavy menstrual bleeding
- Vaginal pain during sexual intercourse
- Diarrhea, constipation, or pain during bowel movements
- Bleeding from the rectum or blood in the urine during menses
- Nausea and vomiting just prior to monthly periods
- Infertility. Endometriosis is one of the most common causes of infertility.
|Fibroids are growths, which may appear alone or in groups. They range from the size of a pea to the size of a melon and can be confined to the wall of the uterus or grow into the cavity of the womb. They can also grow outward from the uterus on stalks. Less than 0.5 percent of the time they can become cancerous. Fibroids tend to shrink after menopause.|
Symptoms associated with fibroids include:
- Emergency symptoms: sharp, sudden pain in the abdomen (when a fibroid on a stalk becomes twisted or if it has outgrown its blood supply)
- Heavy periods, resulting in anemia
- Abdominal discomfort, abdominal fullness
- Lower back pain
- Bladder or rectal pressure
Fibroids can also be associated with infertility or problems in pregnancy, including preterm labor, abnormal attachment of the placenta, increased need for C-section, or post-partum hemorrhage.
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Menopause is a normal biological event that occurs in all women. The average age of menopause is 51 years old; however, this age varies and can occur between 40 and 60 years old. It is diagnosed by loss of menstrual periods for 12 consecutive months.
The onset of menopause is affected by:
- Surgical removal of ovaries
- Medically induced menopause (such as chemotherapy for breast cancer)
Estrogen and progesterone have critical effects on the reproductive system, urinary function, bone and mineral metabolism, cardiovascular function and memory and cognition. Lower levels of these hormones in the blood can produce unpleasant symptoms and can be treated in appropriate patients.
Symptoms of Menopause
Symptoms of menopause vary from woman to woman but will probably include any or a combination of the following:
- Hot flashes
- Libido or sexual health issues
- Vaginal dryness
- Mood swings
Menstrual Disorders are a class of problems affecting a woman’s monthly menstrual cycle. Menstrual Disorders include any or more than one of the following:
- Dysmennorhea (painful periods)
- Irregular periods or missed periods
- Heavy periods
Patients are usually referred by a primary care physician or by their treating gynecologists. Patients often struggle with menstrual disorders before they find the diagnostic experience and excellence that the gynecologists.
Benign Ovarian Cysts
|An ovarian cyst is a fluid-filled sac that forms in the ovary. Ovarian cysts are common and, in the vast majority of cases, they are benign (noncancerous). They vary in size and may occur at different sites in the ovary; the most common type develops when an egg-producing follicle does not rupture and release the egg but instead swells with fluid and forms a follicular cyst.|
Symptoms can include:
In many cases, ovarian cysts produce no symptoms.
- Mild abdominal ache
- Abdominal swelling or a feeling of fullness or pressure
- Pain during sexual intercourse
- Menstrual irregularities including absence of menstrual bleeding (amenorrhea), heavy bleeding (menorrhagia), and painful periods (dysmenorrhea)
- Unusual hair growth on the face and body caused by an increased production of masculinizing hormones (hirsutism)
- Sudden, sharp abdominal pain, fever, and nausea if a cyst becomes twisted or ruptures
- Rarely, painful, frequent urination-or urinary retention-if a cyst presses against the bladder
If you experience any of the symptoms of ovarian cysts, call a gynecologist. If you have been diagnosed with an ovarian cyst and you experience sudden, sharp abdominal pain, fever, or vomiting, see a doctor immediately.
Perimenopause or the “climacteric” is the phase that usually precedes the menopause and usually lasts three to five years.
Symptoms of Perimenopause
Perimenopause can cause symptoms that are due to changes in estrogen and progesterone production by a woman’s ovaries. During this time a woman can experience the following symptoms:
- Irregular menses
- Vaginal dryness
- Decreased libido or sexual health issues (link to that page)
- Mood swings
- Hot flashes
- Night sweats
Rectal prolapse is a protrusion of the tissue of the rectal wall through the anal canal. In severe cases, this circular ring of rectal wall protrudes through the anus and outside the body. The protruding tissue may be visible or palpable, especially during defecation.
In more mild cases, the upper rectum protrudes into the lower rectum but remains inside the woman’s body. Rectal prolapse may be associated with constipation, difficult defecation, and anal incontinence.